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Stephen Hawking Doku Who Was Stephen Hawking? VideoStephen Hawking: Geheimnisse des Weltalls - Außerirdische (in HD)
The eldest of Frank and Isobel Hawking's four children, Hawking was born into a family of thinkers. His Scottish mother earned her way into Oxford University in the s — a time when few women were able to go to college.
His father, another Oxford graduate, was a respected medical researcher with a specialty in tropical diseases. Hawking's birth came at an inopportune time for his parents, who didn't have much money.
The political climate was also tense, as England was dealing with World War II and the onslaught of German bombs in London, where the couple was living as Frank Hawking undertook research in medicine.
In an effort to seek a safer place, Isobel returned to Oxford to have the couple's first child. The Hawkings would go on to have two other children, Mary and Philippa.
And their second son, Edward, was adopted in The Hawkings, as one close family friend described them, were an "eccentric" bunch. Dinner was often eaten in silence, each of the Hawkings intently reading a book.
The family car was an old London taxi, and their home in St. Albans was a three-story fixer-upper that never quite got fixed.
The Hawkings also housed bees in the basement and produced fireworks in the greenhouse. In , Hawking's father took work to manage the Division of Parasitology at the National Institute of Medical Research, and spent the winter months in Africa doing research.
He wanted his eldest child to go into medicine, but at an early age, Hawking showed a passion for science and the sky. That was evident to his mother, who, along with her children, often stretched out in the backyard on summer evenings to stare up at the stars.
Hawking was also frequently on the go. With his sister Mary, Hawking, who loved to climb, devised different entry routes into the family home.
He loved to dance and also took an interest in rowing, becoming a team coxswain in college. Early in his academic life, Hawking, while recognized as bright, was not an exceptional student.
During his first year at St. Albans School , he was third from the bottom of his class. But Hawking focused on pursuits outside of school; he loved board games, and he and a few close friends created new games of their own.
During his teens, Hawking, along with several friends, constructed a computer out of recycled parts for solving rudimentary mathematical equations.
Hawking entered University College at the University of Oxford at the age of Although he expressed a desire to study mathematics, Oxford didn't offer a degree in that specialty, so Hawking gravitated toward physics and, more specifically, cosmology.
By his own account, Hawking didn't put much time into his studies. He would later calculate that he averaged about an hour a day focusing on school.
And yet he didn't really have to do much more than that. In , Hawking became a member of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge.
The next few years were a fruitful time for Hawking and his research. They were married in The couple gave birth to a son, Robert, in , and a daughter, Lucy, in A third child, Timothy, arrived in In , Hawking left his wife Jane for one of his nurses, Elaine Mason.
The two were married in The marriage put a strain on Hawking's relationship with his own children, who claimed Elaine closed off their father from them.
In , nurses looking after Hawking reported their suspicions to police that Elaine was physically abusing her husband.
Hawking denied the allegations, and the police investigation was called off. In , Hawking and Elaine filed for divorce.
In the following years, the physicist reportedly grew closer to his family. He reconciled with Jane, who had remarried. And he published five science-themed novels for children with his daughter, Lucy.
Over the years, Hawking wrote or co-wrote a total of 15 books. A few of the most noteworthy include:. In Hawking catapulted to international prominence with the publication of A Brief History of Time.
The short, informative book became an account of cosmology for the masses and offered an overview of space and time, the existence of God and the future.
The work was an instant success, spending more than four years atop the London Sunday Times' best-seller list.
Since its publication, it has sold millions of copies worldwide and been translated into more than 40 languages.
A Brief History of Time also wasn't as easy to understand as some had hoped. So in , Hawking followed up his book with The Universe in a Nutshell , which offered a more illustrated guide to cosmology's big theories.
In , Hawking authored the even more accessible A Briefer History of Time , which further simplified the original work's core concepts and touched upon the newest developments in the field like string theory.
Together these three books, along with Hawking's own research and papers, articulated the physicist's personal search for science's Holy Grail: a single unifying theory that can combine cosmology the study of the big with quantum mechanics the study of the small to explain how the universe began.
This kind of ambitious thinking allowed Hawking, who claimed he could think in 11 dimensions, to lay out some big possibilities for humankind.
He was convinced that time travel is possible, and that humans may indeed colonize other planets in the future. In September , Hawking spoke against the idea that God could have created the universe in his book The Grand Design.
Hawking previously argued that belief in a creator could be compatible with modern scientific theories. In this work, however, he concluded that the Big Bang was the inevitable consequence of the laws of physics and nothing more.
The Grand Design was Hawking's first major publication in almost a decade. Within his new work, Hawking set out to challenge Isaac Newton 's belief that the universe had to have been designed by God, simply because it could not have been born from chaos.
In a very simple sense, the nerves that controlled his muscles were shutting down. At the time, doctors gave him two and a half years to live.
Hawking first began to notice problems with his physical health while he was at Oxford — on occasion he would trip and fall, or slur his speech — but he didn't look into the problem until , during his first year at Cambridge.
For the most part, Hawking had kept these symptoms to himself. But when his father took notice of the condition, he took Hawking to see a doctor.
For the next two weeks, the year-old college student made his home at a medical clinic, where he underwent a series of tests. Eventually, however, doctors did diagnose Hawking with the early stages of ALS.
It was devastating news for him and his family, but a few events prevented him from becoming completely despondent.
The first of these came while Hawking was still in the hospital. There, he shared a room with a boy suffering from leukemia.
Relative to what his roommate was going through, Hawking later reflected, his situation seemed more tolerable. Not long after he was released from the hospital, Hawking had a dream that he was going to be executed.
He said this dream made him realize that there were still things to do with his life. In a sense, Hawking's disease helped turn him into the noted scientist he became.
Before the diagnosis, Hawking hadn't always focused on his studies. With the sudden realization that he might not even live long enough to earn his Ph.
As physical control over his body diminished he'd be forced to use a wheelchair by , the effects of his disease started to slow down. Retrieved 15 June Pasadena, California.
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Library resources about Stephen Hawking. Resources in your library Resources in other libraries.Spitzenbewertungen aus Deutschland. Geld verdienen mit Amazon. Kommentar: Von Europas Nr. Bei der zweiten DVD gibt es zudem keine I Tunes Chip. Zustand: Gebraucht: Sehr gut. Kombi aus Theorie u. Frank Hawking Peter Firth This drama concerns the early days in the life of Professor Stephen Liebe Im Gep�Ck Stream Hd Filme. And he published five science-themed novels for children with his daughter, Lucy. Full Cast and Crew. Archived from the original on 2 September Archived from the original on 7 April Archived from the original on 15 October Archived from the original on 9 August Amazon Kunden Chat 24 March With Page's help and that of a secretary, Jane's responsibilities were reduced so she could return to her doctoral thesis and her new interest in singing. Amazon Advertising Kunden finden, gewinnen und binden. Eine Person fand diese Zauberringe hilfreich. Geld verdienen mit Amazon. Gebraucht: Sehr gut Details. Sollte man gesehen haben Little Women - DVD. Der weltbekannte und renommierte Astrophysiker Stephen Hawking geht sogar noch einen Schritt weiter und stellt in dieser Folge von [“Urknall oder Schöpfung. stephen hawking - visionen eines genies doku.
Hawking accepted, and Bernard Carr travelled with them as the first of many students who fulfilled this role. Hawking returned to Cambridge in to a new home and a new job, as reader.
Don Page , with whom Hawking had begun a close friendship at Caltech, arrived to work as the live-in graduate student assistant. With Page's help and that of a secretary, Jane's responsibilities were reduced so she could return to her doctoral thesis and her new interest in singing.
Hellyer Jones became close to the Hawking family, and by the mids, he and Jane had developed romantic feelings for each other. By the s, Hawking's marriage had been strained for many years.
Jane felt overwhelmed by the intrusion into their family life of the required nurses and assistants. In the late s, Hawking grew close to one of his nurses, Elaine Mason, to the dismay of some colleagues, caregivers, and family members, who were disturbed by her strength of personality and protectiveness.
In , Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars , describing her marriage to Hawking and its breakdown. Its revelations caused a sensation in the media but, as was his usual practice regarding his personal life, Hawking made no public comment except to say that he did not read biographies about himself.
In , Hawking and Mason quietly divorced,   and Hawking resumed closer relationships with Jane, his children, and his grandchildren. Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neuron disease MND; also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , or Lou Gehrig 's disease , a fatal neurodegenerative disease that results in the death of motor neurones in the brain and spinal cord, which gradually paralysed him over decades.
Hawking had experienced increasing clumsiness during his final year at Oxford, including a fall on some stairs and difficulties when rowing.
At the time, doctors gave him a life expectancy of two years. In the late s, Hawking's physical abilities declined: he began to use crutches and could no longer give lectures regularly.
He preferred to be regarded as "a scientist first, popular science writer second, and, in all the ways that matter, a normal human being with the same desires, drives, dreams, and ambitions as the next person.
I've called it both at one time or another. When Hawking first began using a wheelchair in the late s he was using standard motorised models.
Hawking used a variety of different chairs from that time, including a DragonMobility Dragon elevating powerchair from , as shown in the April photo of Hawking attending NASA's 50th anniversary;  a Permobil C from ; and then a Permobil F3 from Hawking's speech deteriorated, and by the late s he could be understood by only his family and closest friends.
To communicate with others, someone who knew him well would interpret his speech into intelligible speech. During a visit to CERN on the border of France and Switzerland in mid, Hawking contracted pneumonia , which in his condition was life-threatening; he was so ill that Jane was asked if life support should be terminated.
She refused, but the consequence was a tracheotomy , which required round-the-clock nursing care and the removal of what remained of his speech.
The cost of the care was funded by an American foundation. One of those employed was Elaine Mason, who was to become Hawking's second wife.
For his communication, Hawking initially raised his eyebrows to choose letters on a spelling card ,  but in he received a computer program called the "Equalizer" from Walter Woltosz, CEO of Words Plus, who had developed an earlier version of the software to help his mother-in-law, who also suffered from ALS and had lost her ability to speak and write.
Elaine Mason's husband, David, a computer engineer, adapted a small computer and attached it to his wheelchair.
Released from the need to use somebody to interpret his speech, Hawking commented that "I can communicate better now than before I lost my voice.
Hawking gradually lost the use of his hand, and in he began to control his communication device with movements of his cheek muscles,    with a rate of about one word per minute.
After several prototypes that did not perform as planned, they settled on an adaptive word predictor made by the London-based startup SwiftKey , which used a system similar to his original technology.
Hawking had an easier time adapting to the new system, which was further developed after inputting large amounts of Hawking's papers and other written materials and uses predictive software similar to other smartphone keyboards.
By , he could no longer drive his wheelchair independently, but the same people who created his new typing mechanics were working on a method to drive his chair using movements made by his chin.
This proved difficult, since Hawking could not move his neck, and trials showed that while he could indeed drive the chair, the movement was sporadic and jumpy.
Starting in the s, Hawking accepted the mantle of role model for disabled people, lecturing and participating in fundraising activities.
In August , Hawking narrated the "Enlightenment" segment of the Summer Paralympics opening ceremony in London. As he had pneumonia in , he was advised not to have ice poured over him, but his children volunteered to accept the challenge on his behalf.
In late , Hawking revealed in a BBC interview that one of his greatest unfulfilled desires was to travel to space;  on hearing this, Sir Richard Branson offered a free flight into space with Virgin Galactic , which Hawking immediately accepted.
Besides personal ambition, he was motivated by the desire to increase public interest in spaceflight and to show the potential of people with disabilities.
Hawking died at his home in Cambridge on 14 March , at the age of Inscribed on his memorial stone are the words "Here lies what was mortal of Stephen Hawking —" and his most famed equation.
Hawking's final broadcast interview, about the detection of gravitational waves resulting from the collision of two neutron stars , occurred in October In March , it was announced that the Royal Mint issued a commemorative 50 pence coin in honour of Hawking.
In , Hawking posed an open question on the Internet: "In a world that is in chaos politically, socially and environmentally, how can the human race sustain another years?
That is why I asked the question, to get people to think about it, and to be aware of the dangers we now face.
Hawking expressed concern that life on Earth is at risk from a sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus , global warming , or other dangers humans have not yet thought of.
Hawking stated that, given the vastness of the universe, aliens likely exist, but that contact with them should be avoided. In he said, "If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans.
Hawking warned that superintelligent artificial intelligence could be pivotal in steering humanity's fate, stating that "the potential benefits are huge Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history.
It might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. Hawking was concerned about the future emergence of a race of "superhumans" that would be able to design their own evolution  and, as well, argued that computer viruses in today's world should be considered a new form of life, stating that "maybe it says something about human nature, that the only form of life we have created so far is purely destructive.
Talk about creating life in our own image. At Google's Zeitgeist Conference in , Hawking said that "philosophy is dead". He believed that philosophers "have not kept up with modern developments in science" and that scientists "have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge".
He said that philosophical problems can be answered by science, particularly new scientific theories which "lead us to a new and very different picture of the universe and our place in it".
Hawking was an atheist   and believed that "the universe is governed by the laws of science". He stated: "There is a fundamental difference between religion, which is based on authority, [and] science, which is based on observation and reason.
Science will win because it works. We are each free to believe what we want and it is my view that the simplest explanation is there is no God.
No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realisation. There is probably no heaven, and no afterlife either.
We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that, I am extremely grateful. Hawking's association with atheism and freethinking was in evidence from his university years onwards, when he had been a member of Oxford University's humanist group.
He was later scheduled to appear as the keynote speaker at a Humanists UK conference. Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe.
But now science offers a more convincing explanation. What I meant by 'we would know the mind of God' is, we would know everything that God would know, if there were a God, which there isn't.
I'm an atheist. If you like, you can call the laws of science 'God', but it wouldn't be a personal God that you would meet and put questions to.
Hawking was a longstanding Labour Party supporter. Hawking was greatly concerned over health care, and maintained that without the UK National Health Service , he could not have survived into his 70s.
I believe in universal health care. And I am not afraid to say so. Hawking feared privatisation. He stated, "The more profit is extracted from the system, the more private monopolies grow and the more expensive healthcare becomes.
The NHS must be preserved from commercial interests and protected from those who want to privatise it. But he was also critical of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn , expressing scepticism over whether the party could win a general election under him.
Hawking feared Donald Trump 's policies on global warming could endanger the planet and make global warming irreversible. He said, "Climate change is one of the great dangers we face, and it's one we can prevent if we act now.
By denying the evidence for climate change, and pulling out of the Paris Agreement , Donald Trump will cause avoidable environmental damage to our beautiful planet, endangering the natural world, for us and our children.
In , Hawking, Arthur C. They discussed the Big Bang theory , God and the possibility of extraterrestrial life.
At the release party for the home video version of the A Brief History of Time , Leonard Nimoy , who had played Spock on Star Trek , learned that Hawking was interested in appearing on the show.
Nimoy made the necessary contact, and Hawking played a holographic simulation of himself in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in Hawking allowed the use of his copyrighted voice   in the biographical film The Theory of Everything , in which he was portrayed by Eddie Redmayne in an Academy Award-winning role.
Hawking received numerous awards and honours. Hawking has made major contributions to the field of general relativity.
These derive from a deep understanding of what is relevant to physics and astronomy, and especially from a mastery of wholly new mathematical techniques.
Following the pioneering work of Penrose he established, partly alone and partly in collaboration with Penrose, a series of successively stronger theorems establishing the fundamental result that all realistic cosmological models must possess singularities.
Using similar techniques, Hawking has proved the basic theorems on the laws governing black holes: that stationary solutions of Einstein's equations with smooth event horizons must necessarily be axisymmetric; and that in the evolution and interaction of black holes, the total surface area of the event horizons must increase.
In collaboration with G. Ellis, Hawking is the author of an impressive and original treatise on "Space-time in the Large".
The citation continues, "Other important work by Hawking relates to the interpretation of cosmological observations and to the design of gravitational wave detectors.
At the Pride of Britain Awards , Hawking received the lifetime achievement award "for his contribution to science and British culture".
Hawking was a member of the Advisory Board of the Starmus Festival , and had a major role in acknowledging and promoting science communication.
The Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication is an annual award initiated in to honour members of the arts community for contributions that help build awareness of science.
The first recipients of the medals, which were awarded at the festival, were chosen by Hawking himself. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author. Oxford , England. Cambridge , England. Jane Wilde. Elaine Mason. General relativity Quantum gravity.
Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.
Further information: Stephen Hawking in popular culture. This relationship between concepts from the disparate fields of general relativity , quantum mechanics and thermodynamics implies the existence of deep connections between them and may presage their unification.
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Physical Review D. As physical control over his body diminished he'd be forced to use a wheelchair by , the effects of his disease started to slow down.
Over time, however, Hawking's ever-expanding career was accompanied by an ever-worsening physical state.
By the mids, the Hawking family had taken in one of Hawking's graduate students to help manage his care and work. He could still feed himself and get out of bed, but virtually everything else required assistance.
In addition, his speech had become increasingly slurred, so that only those who knew him well could understand him.
In he lost his voice for good following a tracheotomy. The resulting situation required hour nursing care for the acclaimed physicist.
It also put in peril Hawking's ability to do his work. The predicament caught the attention of a California computer programmer, who had developed a speaking program that could be directed by head or eye movement.
The invention allowed Hawking to select words on a computer screen that were then passed through a speech synthesizer.
At the time of its introduction, Hawking, who still had use of his fingers, selected his words with a handheld clicker.
Eventually, with virtually all control of his body gone, Hawking directed the program through a cheek muscle attached to a sensor.
Through the program, and the help of assistants, Hawking continued to write at a prolific rate. His work included numerous scientific papers, of course, but also information for the non-scientific community.
Hawking's health remained a constant concern—a worry that was heightened in when he failed to appear at a conference in Arizona because of a chest infection.
In April, Hawking, who had already announced he was retiring after 30 years from the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, was rushed to the hospital for being what university officials described as "gravely ill," though he later made a full recovery.
Photo: Frederick M. In , Hawking's research turned him into a celebrity within the scientific world when he showed that black holes aren't the information vacuums that scientists had thought they were.
In simple terms, Hawking demonstrated that matter, in the form of radiation, can escape the gravitational force of a collapsed star. Another young cosmologist, Roger Penrose, had earlier discovered groundbreaking findings about the fate of stars and the creation of black holes, which tapped into Hawking's own fascination with how the universe began.
Hawking was named a fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 32, and later earned the prestigious Albert Einstein Award, among other honors.
He also earned teaching stints at Caltech in Pasadena, California, where he served as visiting professor, and at Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge.
In August , Hawking appeared at a conference in Sweden to discuss new theories about black holes and the vexing "information paradox.
He suggested picturing this reality by thinking of imaginary time and real time as beginning at the Earth's South Pole, a point of space-time where the normal laws of physics hold; as there is nothing "south" of the South Pole, there was also nothing before the Big Bang.
In , at the age of 65, Hawking made an important step toward space travel. While visiting the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, he was given the opportunity to experience an environment without gravity.
Over the course of two hours over the Atlantic, Hawking, a passenger on a modified Boeing , was freed from his wheelchair to experience bursts of weightlessness.
Pictures of the freely floating physicist splashed across newspapers around the globe. I could have gone on and on. Space, here I come! He said in a statement, "Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster, such as sudden global warming , nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus or other dangers.
I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space. If there is such a thing as a rock-star scientist, Hawking embodied it.
Other TV and movie appearances included:. In , Hawking showed off his humorous side on American television, making a guest appearance on The Big Bang Theory.
Playing himself on this popular comedy about a group of young, geeky scientists, Hawking brings the theoretical physicist Sheldon Cooper Jim Parsons back to Earth after finding an error in his work.
Hawking earned kudos for this light-hearted effort. In November of , a film about the life of Hawking and Jane Wilde was released.
The Theory of Everything stars Eddie Redmayne as Hawking and encompasses his early life and school days, his courtship and marriage to Wilde, the progression of his crippling disease and his scientific triumphs.
In May , Hawking hosted and narrated Genius , a six-part television series which enlists volunteers to tackle scientific questions that have been asked throughout history.
Being an optimist, I think they will. In , Hawkings had participated in a trial of a new headband-styled device called the iBrain.
The device is designed to "read" the wearer's thoughts by picking up "waves of electrical brain signals," which are then interpreted by a special algorithm, according to an article in The New York Times.
This device could be a revolutionary aid to people with ALS. In , Hawking, among other top scientists, spoke out about the possible dangers of artificial intelligence, or AI, calling for more research to be done on all of possible ramifications of AI.
Their comments were inspired by the Johnny Depp film Transcendence , which features a clash between humanity and technology.
Hawking reiterated this stance while speaking at a technology conference in Lisbon, Portugal, in November In July , Hawking held a news conference in London to announce the launch of a project called Breakthrough Listen.
Funded by Russian entrepreneur Yuri Milner, Breakthrough Listen was created to devote more resources to the discovery of extraterrestrial life.
An overwhelming demand for access promptly crashed the university server, though the document still fielded a staggering 60, views before the end of its first day online.
In the early s Hawking contracted amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , an incurable degenerative neuromuscular disease. Hawking worked primarily in the field of general relativity and particularly on the physics of black holes.
In he suggested the formation, following the big bang , of numerous objects containing as much as one billion tons of mass but occupying only the space of a proton.
These objects, called mini black holes , are unique in that their immense mass and gravity require that they be ruled by the laws of relativity, while their minute size requires that the laws of quantum mechanics apply to them also.
In Hawking proposed that, in accordance with the predictions of quantum theory, black holes emit subatomic particles until they exhaust their energy and finally explode.
In the Royal Society elected him one of its youngest fellows. Presidential Medal of Freedom in Home Science Physics Physicists. Print Cite.
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