Dieser Titel des gleichnamigen Films aus dem Jahr , der die Entführung Aldo Moros durch die Brigate Rosse (BR, in der Folge Rote Brigaden) thematisiert. So wie die Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF) die BRD der er und 80er Jahre prägte, waren es in Italien zur gleichen Zeit die Roten Brigaden (BR). Die Parallelen. Die. Roten. Brigaden. Italiens. Carolin. Holzmeier. und. Natalie. Mayer (BR, in der Folge Rote Brigaden) thematisiert, muss als kultureller Anstoß zu einer auf.
Rote Brigaden In den 1970er Jahren wurde politische Gewalt alltäglich
Die Roten Brigaden waren eine kommunistische Untergrundorganisation in Italien. Sie wurden in Mailand gegründet. Zu den Gründern gehörten Renato Curcio, dessen Ehefrau Margherita Cagol und Alberto Franceschini. Die BR betrachteten sich als. Die Roten Brigaden (italienisch Brigate Rosse, BR) waren eine kommunistische Untergrundorganisation in Italien. Sie wurden in Mailand gegründet. Dieser Titel des gleichnamigen Films aus dem Jahr , der die Entführung Aldo Moros durch die Brigate Rosse (BR, in der Folge Rote Brigaden) thematisiert. Im Frühjahr entführen linksextreme Terroristen der»Roten Brigaden«den früheren Premier Aldo Moro, einen der mächtigsten Männer Italiens. Doch die. Rossana Lueehesi RAF und Rote Brigaden i Deutschland und Italien von 19Ge schichtswissenschaft, Band 21 Rossana Lucchesi RAF und Rote. Die. Roten. Brigaden. Italiens. Carolin. Holzmeier. und. Natalie. Mayer (BR, in der Folge Rote Brigaden) thematisiert, muss als kultureller Anstoß zu einer auf. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Rote Brigaden“ in Deutsch-Englisch von Reverso Context: Er wurde von der Terrororganisation Rote Brigaden entführt und von.
Rossana Lueehesi RAF und Rote Brigaden i Deutschland und Italien von 19Ge schichtswissenschaft, Band 21 Rossana Lucchesi RAF und Rote. Dieser Titel des gleichnamigen Films aus dem Jahr , der die Entführung Aldo Moros durch die Brigate Rosse (BR, in der Folge Rote Brigaden) thematisiert. Die Roten Brigaden waren eine kommunistische Untergrundorganisation in Italien. Sie wurden in Mailand gegründet. Zu den Gründern gehörten Renato Curcio, dessen Ehefrau Margherita Cagol und Alberto Franceschini. Die BR betrachteten sich als. Der Auslieferung des früheren Linksterroristen Cesare Battisti an Italien hat im Tessin eine Polemik um den Ex-Rotbrigadisten Alvaro Baragiola. So wie die Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF) die BRD der er und 80er Jahre prägte, waren es in Italien zur gleichen Zeit die Roten Brigaden (BR). Die Parallelen. Dieser Titel des gleichnamigen Films aus dem Jahr , der die Entführung Aldo Moros durch die Brigate Rosse (BR, in der Folge Rote Brigaden).
Rote Brigaden NavigationsmenüHauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Letztendlich stand die Polizei zu diesem Zeitpunkt kurz vor der Festnahme aller wichtigen Aktivisten. Richardson, Was Jäger Des Augenblicks wollen, aaO. Zwei Jahre später wurden die Redakteure von Metropolitan Srf Stream und beschuldigt, den Roten Brigaden anzugehören. Insgesamt brachten es die Arbeiter auf Schonach Im Schwarzwald Millionen Streikstunden und erkämpften so Lohnerhöhungen in Höhe von 18,3 Prozent und weitere 9,8 bzw. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Die Kommunisten werden sich wieder ihrer aufrührerischen Vergangenheit besinnen und gemeinsam mit den Brigate Rosse und anderen linken Organisationen durch Revolution die Macht erobern. März in Rom. Renato Curcio schreibt über den Anschlag vom Diese Verhaftungswelle bedeutete das Aus für die meisten bewaffneten Gruppen. Siehe Rote Brigaden, Thomas Katrozan Dsds offenem Blick, aaO. Diese operaistischen Gruppierungen fokussieren den Konflikt zwischen Arbeit und Kapital und legen damit eine Konzentration Maddy O Reilly die Arbeiterklasse an den Tag. Neben der Problematik des Vorliegens politischideologisch gefärbter Analysen und Darstellungen gilt es auf die zahlreichen Verschwörungstheorien hinzuweisen, welche das Phänomen des italienischen Links-Terrorismus zu Swr 4 bedeutenden Jazzy Gudd Nackt durch das Wirken externer Akteure zu erklären versuchen. Taktik und der Wirkungskreis dieser ersten Phase waren eng begrenzt auf die Fabriken Mailands.
All four of the defendants charged with arson and endangering human life were convicted, for which they were sentenced to three years in prison.
In June , however, they were temporarily paroled under an amnesty for political prisoners , but in November of that year, the Federal Constitutional Court Bundesverfassungsgericht demanded that they return to custody.
Eventually they made their way to Italy , where the lawyer Mahler visited them and encouraged them to return to Germany with him to form an underground guerrilla group.
The Red Army Faction was formed with the intention of complementing the plethora of revolutionary and radical groups across West Germany and Europe, as a more class conscious and determined force compared with some of its contemporaries.
The members and supporters were already associated with the ' Revolutionary Cells ' and 2 June Movement as well as radical currents and phenomena such as the Socialist Patients' Collective , Kommune 1 and the Situationists.
Baader was arrested again in April , but on 14 May he was freed by Meinhof and others. Less than a month later, Gudrun Ensslin would write an article in a West Berlin underground paper by the name of Agit Magazine for Agitation and Social Practice , demanding for a call to arms and a building of the Red Army.
The article ended with the words, "Develop the class struggles. Organize the proletariat. Start the armed resistance!
But RAF organization and outlook were also partly modeled on the Uruguayan Tupamaros movement, which had developed as an urban resistance movement, effectively inverting Che Guevara 's Mao-like concept of a peasant or rural-based guerrilla war and instead situating the struggle in the metropole or cities.
Many members of the RAF operated through a single contact or only knew others by their codenames. Actions were carried out by active units called ' commandos ', with trained members being supplied by a quartermaster in order to carry out their mission.
For more long-term or core cadre members, isolated cell-like organization was absent or took on a more flexible form. The urban guerrilla follows a political goal, and only attacks the government, big businesses, and foreign imperialists.
This publication was an antecedent to Meinhof's 'The Urban Guerrilla Concept' and has subsequently influenced many guerrilla and insurgent groups around the globe.
That said, they shied away from overt collaboration with communist states , arguing along the lines of the Chinese side in the Sino-Soviet split that the Soviet Union and its European satellite states had become traitors to the communist cause by, in effect if not in rhetoric, giving the United States a free pass in their exploitation of Third World populations and support of "useful" Third World dictators.
Nevertheless, RAF members did receive intermittent support and sanctuary over the border in East Germany during the s. The Baader-Meinhof Gang drew a measure of support that violent leftists in the United States, like the Weather Underground , never enjoyed.
A poll at the time showed that a quarter of West Germans under forty felt sympathy for the gang and one-tenth said they would hide a gang member from the police.
Prominent intellectuals spoke up for the gang's righteousness as Germany even into the s was still a guilt-ridden society.
When the gang started robbing banks, newscasts compared its members to Bonnie and Clyde. Andreas Baader, a charismatic action man indulged in the imagery, telling people that his favourite movies were Bonnie and Clyde , which had recently come out, and The Battle of Algiers.
The pop poster of Che Guevara hung on his wall, while he paid a designer to make a Red Army Faction logo, a drawing of a machine gun against a red star.
When they returned to West Germany, they began what they called an " anti-imperialistic struggle", with bank robberies to raise money and bomb attacks against U.
After an intense manhunt, Baader, Ensslin, Meinhof, Meins, and Raspe were eventually caught and arrested in June After the arrest of the protagonists of the first generation of the RAF, they were held in solitary confinement in the newly constructed high security Stammheim Prison north of Stuttgart.
When Ensslin devised an "info system" using aliases for each member names deemed to have allegorical significance from Moby Dick ,  the four prisoners were able to communicate, circulating letters with the help of their defense counsel.
To protest against their treatment by authorities, they went on several coordinated hunger strikes ; eventually, they were force-fed.
Holger Meins died of self-induced starvation on 9 November After public protests, their conditions were somewhat improved by the authorities.
The so-called second generation of the RAF emerged at that time, consisting of sympathizers independent of the inmates. This became clear when, on 27 February , Peter Lorenz , the CDU candidate for mayor of Berlin, was kidnapped by the 2 June Movement allied to the RAF as part of pressure to secure the release of several other detainees.
Since none of these were on trial for murder, the state agreed, and those inmates and later Lorenz himself were released.
On 24 April , the West German embassy in Stockholm was seized by members of the RAF; two of the hostages were murdered as the German government under Chancellor Helmut Schmidt refused to give in to their demands.
Two of the hostage-takers died from injuries they suffered when the explosives they planted mysteriously detonated later that night.
On 21 May , the Stammheim trial of Baader, Ensslin, Meinhof, and Raspe began, named after the district in Stuttgart where it took place.
The Bundestag had earlier changed the Code of Criminal Procedure so that several of the attorneys who were accused of serving as links between the inmates and the RAF's second generation could be excluded.
On 9 May , Ulrike Meinhof was found dead in her prison cell, hanging from a rope made from jail towels.
An investigation concluded that she had hanged herself, a result hotly contested at the time, triggering a plethora of conspiracy theories.
Other theories suggest that she took her life because she was being ostracized by the rest of the group. There is, however, evidence to the contrary of this hypothesis.
During the trial, more attacks took place. One of these was on 7 April , when Federal Prosecutor Siegfried Buback , his driver, and his bodyguard were shot and killed by two RAF members while waiting at a red traffic light.
Among other things, two years earlier, while being interviewed by Stern magazine, he stated that "Persons like Baader don't deserve a fair trial.
Eventually, on 28 April , the trial's nd day, the three remaining defendants were convicted of several murders, more attempted murders, and of forming a terrorist organization; they were sentenced to life imprisonment.
A new section of Stammheim Prison was built especially for the RAF and was considered one of the most secure prison blocks around the world at the time.
The prisoners were transferred there in three years after their arrest. The roof and the courtyard were covered with steel mesh.
During the night, the precinct was illuminated by fifty-four spotlights and twenty-three neon bulbs. Special military forces, including snipers, guarded the roof.
Four hundred police officers along with the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution patrolled the building. The mounted police officers rotated on a double shift.
One hundred more GSG-9 tactical police officers reinforced the police during the trial while BKA detectives guarded the front of the court area.
Finally, helicopters overflew the area. Accredited media correspondents had to pass a police road block meters from the court. The police noted their data and the number-plate and photographed their cars.
After that they had to pass three verification audits, and finally they were undressed and two judicial officials thoroughly searched their bodies.
They were allowed to keep only a pencil and a notepad inside the court. Their personal items including their identity papers were withheld by the authorities during the trial.
Every journalist could attend the trial only twice two days. The Times questioned the possibility whether a fair trial could be conducted under these circumstances which involved siege-like conditions.
Der Spiegel wondered whether that atmosphere anticipated "the condemnation of the defendants who were allegedly responsible for the emergency measures.
During visits from lawyers and, more rarely, relatives friends were not allowed , three jailers would observe the conversations the prisoners had with their visitors.
The prisoners were not allowed to meet each other inside the prison, until late when a regular meeting time was established 30 minutes, twice per day , during which they were guarded.
The judges and their pasts are considered important by supporters of the accused. When he threatened Meinhof that she would be put into a glass cage she answered caustically, "So you are threatening me with Eichmann's cage, fascist?
Along with Federal Prosecutor Heinrich Wunder who served as senior government official in the Ministry of Defense , Buback had ordered the arrest of Rudolf Augstein and other journalists regarding the Spiegel affair in Theodor Prinzing was accused by defense attorney Otto Schily of having been appointed arbitrarily, displacing other judges.
At several points in the Stammheim trial, microphones were turned off while defendants were speaking. They were often expelled from the hall, and other actions were taken.
It was later revealed that the conversation they had between themselves as well as with their attorneys were recorded.
Finally it was reported by both the defendants' attorneys and some of the prison's doctors, that the physical and psychological state of the prisoners held in solitary confinement and white cells was such that they couldn't attend the long trial days and defend themselves appropriately.
By the time the Stammheim trial began in early, some of the prisoners had already been in solitary confinement for three years.
Their statements were often contradictory, something that was also commented on in the newspapers.
Ruhland himself later reported to Stern that his deposition was prepared in cooperation with police. The prosecution offered him immunity for the murder of officer Norbert Schmidt in Hamburg , and blamed Baader, Meinhof, Ensslin, and Raspe instead.
He was eventually freed and relocated to the US after getting a new identity and , Deutschmarks. The government hastily approved several special laws for use during the Stammheim trial.
Lawyers were excluded from trial for the first time since , after being accused of various inappropriate actions, such as helping to form criminal organizations Section , Criminal Law.
The authorities invaded and checked the lawyers' offices for possible incriminating material. Minister of Justice Hans-Jochen Vogel stated proudly that no other Western state had such extensive regulation to exclude defense attorneys from a trial.
Klaus Croissant , Hans-Christian Ströbele , Kurt Groenewold, who had been working preparing for the trial for three years, were expelled the second day of the trial.
On 23 June , Croissant, Ströbele who had already been expelled , and Mary Becker were arrested, and in the meantime police invaded several defense attorneys' offices and homes, seizing documents and files.
Ströbele and Croissant were remanded and held for four and eight weeks respectively. Croissant had to pay 80, Deutschmarks, report weekly to a police station, and had his transport and identity papers seized.
The defense lawyers and prisoners were not the only ones affected by measures adopted for the RAF-trial. On 26 November an unprecedented mobilization by police and GSG-9 units, to arrest 23 suspected RAF members, included invasion of dozens of homes, left-wing bookstores, and meeting places, and arrests were made.
No guerrillas were found. The general approach by defendants and their attorneys was to highlight the political purpose and characteristics of RAF.
On 13 and 14 January the defendants readied their testimony about pages , in which they analyzed the role of imperialism and its fight against the revolutionary movements in the countries of the "third world".
They also expounded the fascistization of West Germany and its role as an imperialistic state alliance with the U. Finally they talked about the task of urban guerrillas and undertook the political responsibility for the bombing attacks.
Finally their lawyers following Ulrike Meinhof's proposal requested that the accused be officially regarded as prisoners of war.
On 4 May five days before Meinhof's death the four defendants demanded to provide data about the Vietnam War.
They claimed that since the military intervention in Vietnam by the U. Later when their requests were rejected, U. Peck concluded that the RAF "was the response to criminal aggression of the U.
The real terrorist was my government. He had also observed the Stammheim trial and referred to a CIA instructor teaching them how to make a murder look like a suicide.
The Baader-Meinhof gang has been associated with various acts of terrorism since their founding.
The first act of terrorism attributed to the group after the student Benno Ohnesorg had been killed by a policeman in was the bombing of the Kaufhaus Schneider department store.
Prominent members of the bombing included Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin , two of the founders of the Baader-Meinhof gang.
The bombs detonated at midnight when no one was in the store, thus no one was injured. As the bombs ignited, Gudrun Ensslin was at a nearby payphone, yelling to the German Press Agency , "This is a political act of revenge.
The bombing resulted in the death of a U. S officer and the injury of 13 other people. The stated reason for the bombing was a political statement in protest of U.
S imperialism, specifically, a protest of US mining of North Vietnam harbours. Only three of the five bombs exploded, but it was enough to injure 36 people.
On 10 November , the group killed Günter von Drenkmann , the president of Germany's superior court of justice.
The killing occurred after a string of events that led to a failed kidnapping by the 2 June Movement, a group that splintered off the Baader-Meinhof group after the death of Holger Meins by hunger strike in prison.
Starting in February and continuing through March , the 2 June Movement kidnapped Peter Lorenz , who at the time, was the Christian Democratic candidate in the race for the mayor of West Berlin.
In exchange for the release of Lorenz, the group demanded that many Baader-Meinhof and 2 June Movement members that were imprisoned for reasons other than violence be released from jail.
The government obliged and released several of these members for the safe release of Lorenz. The group took hostages and set the building to explode.
They demanded the release of several imprisoned members of the Baader-Meinhof gang. The government refused the request, which led to the execution of two of the hostages.
A few of the bombs that were intended to blow up the embassy prematurely detonated, which resulted in the death of two of the six Baader-Meinhof affiliates.
The other four members eventually surrendered to the authorities. In May , several British intelligence reports circulated that stated that the Baader-Meinhof gang had stolen mustard gas from a joint U.
The reports also indicated that the Baader-Meinhof gang had intended to use the stolen gas in German cities.
It eventually turned out that the mustard gas canisters were merely misplaced; however, the Baader-Meinhof gang still successfully capitalized on the news by frightening several different agencies.
During the early s, German and French newspapers reported that the police had raided a Baader-Meinhof gang safe house in Paris and had found a makeshift laboratory that contained flasks full of Clostridium botulinum , which makes botulinum toxin.
These reports were later found to be incorrect; no such lab was ever found. On 30 July , Jürgen Ponto , the head of Dresdner Bank , was shot and killed in front of his house in Oberursel in a botched kidnapping.
Following the convictions, Hanns Martin Schleyer , a former officer of the SS who was then President of the German Employers' Association and thus one of the most powerful industrialists in West Germany was abducted in a violent kidnapping.
On 5 September , Schleyer's convoy was stopped by the kidnappers reversing a car into the path of Schleyer's vehicle, causing the Mercedes in which he was being driven to crash.
Once the convoy was stopped, five masked assailants immediately shot and killed three policemen and the driver and took Schleyer hostage.
One of the group Sieglinde Hofmann produced her weapon from a pram she was pushing down the road. A letter was then received by the federal government, demanding the release of eleven detainees, including those in Stammheim.
A crisis committee was formed in Bonn , headed by Chancellor Helmut Schmidt , which, instead of acceding, resolved to employ delaying tactics to give the police time to discover Schleyer's location.
At the same time, a total communication ban was imposed on the prison inmates, who were now allowed visits only from government officials and the prison chaplain.
The crisis dragged on for more than a month, while the Bundeskriminalamt carried out its biggest investigation to date. The leader introduced himself to the passengers as "Captain Mahmud" who would be later identified as Zohair Youssef Akache.
The Bonn crisis team again decided not to give in. The plane flew on via Larnaca , then Dubai , and then to Aden , where flight captain Jürgen Schumann, whom the hijackers deemed not cooperative enough, was brought before an improvised "revolutionary tribunal" and executed on 16 October.
His body was dumped on the runway. The aircraft again took off, flown by the co-pilot Jürgen Vietor, this time headed for Mogadishu , Somalia.
A high-risk rescue operation was led by Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski , then undersecretary in the chancellor's office, who had been secretly flown in from Bonn.
All four hijackers were shot; three of them died on the spot. None of the passengers were seriously hurt and Wischnewski was able to phone Schmidt and tell the Bonn crisis team that the operation had been a success.
After the successful conclusion of the Landshut hostage crisis was announced in the late evening of 17 October, all the RAF members incarcerated in Stammheim committed suicide during the following night.
Their lawyer, Arndt Müller, had smuggled pistols into the prison. Irmgard Möller tried to kill herself with a knife, but survived severely injured.
The suicides went unnoticed until early next morning. Doctors were rushed in. Baader and Ensslin were already dead when found. Raspe was still alive and moved to the hospital where he died soon after.
Möller recovered after being brought to a hospital. The suicide of the imprisoned RAF leadership led to a significant media echo.
The coordinated attempt sparked numerous conspiracy theories. These theories were spread by RAF supporters and sympathizers; some of them even taken up by the mainstream press.
Available evidence shows that these suicides were planned and prepared for a long time by the RAF members. On the very same day, Hanns-Martin Schleyer was shot to death by his captors en route to Mulhouse , France.
On 19 October, Schleyer's kidnappers announced that he had been "executed" and pinpointed his location. After 43 days we have ended Hanns-Martin Schleyer's pitiful and corrupt existence His death is meaningless to our pain and our rage The struggle has only begun.
Freedom through armed, anti-imperialist struggle. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in late December was a serious blow to Leninist groups, but well into the s attacks were still being committed under the name RAF.
On 30 November , Deutsche Bank chairman Alfred Herrhausen was killed with a highly complex bomb when his car triggered a photo sensor in Bad Homburg.
On 1 April , Detlev Karsten Rohwedder , leader of the government Treuhand organization responsible for the privatization of the East German state economy, was shot and killed.
The assassins of Zimmermann, von Braunmühl, Herrhausen, and Rohwedder were never reliably identified.
After German reunification in , it was confirmed that the RAF had received financial and logistic support from the Stasi , the security and intelligence organization of East Germany , which had given several members who had chosen to leave the group shelter and new identities.
This was already generally suspected at the time. Brigitte Mohnhaupt , Peter Boock, Rolf Wagner, and Sieglinde Hoffmann spent most of the year in SB facilities in Mazury district, where they were also going through series of training programs along with others from Arab countries.
To weaken the organization further the government declared that some RAF inmates would be released if the RAF refrained from violent attacks in the future.
Subsequently, the RAF announced their intention to "de-escalate" and refrain from significant activity.
The last action taken by the RAF took place in with a bombing of a newly built prison in Weiterstadt by overcoming the officers on duty and planting explosives.
Although no one was seriously injured, this operation caused property damage amounting to million Deutschmarks over 50 million euros.
The last big action against the RAF took place on 27 June Due to a number of operational mistakes involving the various police services, German Minister of the Interior Rudolf Seiters took responsibility and resigned from his post.
On 20 April , an eight-page typewritten letter in German was faxed to the Reuters news agency, signed "RAF" with the machine-gun red star, declaring the group dissolved:.
Almost 28 years ago, on 14 May , the RAF arose in a campaign of liberation. Today we end this project.
The urban guerrilla in the shape of the RAF is now history. Mai , entstand in einer Befreiungsaktion die RAF. Heute beenden wir dieses Projekt.
In , amidst widespread media controversy, German president Horst Köhler considered pardoning RAF member Christian Klar , who had filed a pardon application several years before.
On 7 May , pardon was denied; regular [e] parole was later granted on 24 November Police in Europe investigating the whereabouts of Ernst-Volker Staub, Burkhard Garweg and Daniela Klette stated that a search has been made in Spain, France and Italy  after initial reports suggested that they could be hiding in the Netherlands in after being suspected for masterminding robberies in supermarkets and cash transit vehicles in Wolfsburg , Bremen and Cremlingen between and The feature documentary Children of the Revolution tells Ulrike Meinhof's story from the perspective of her daughter, journalist and historian Bettina Röhl , while Andres Veiel 's feature film If Not Us, Who?
The remake of Suspiria features a secondary character attempting to run away to join the Red Army Faction, serving as a catalyst for the later events of the film.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rote Armee Fraktion. Terrorist group in West-Germany.
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Juni mit der Verurteilung von 29 Angeklagten endete. Coco, Croce. Der Prozess musste daher mehrere Male unterbrochen und verschoben werden.
Juni erschossen. Nach Verabschiedung der legge Reale wurden im Zeitraum von bis zwölf weitere Mitglieder der BR von Ordnungskräften erschossen.
Charakteristisch für die Organisationsstruktur der BR ist die dezentrale Gliederung in lokale Basiszellen genannt Kolonnen , italienisch colonne in einzelnen Städten.
Diese colonne wiederum gliederten sich in einzelne Brigaden italienisch brigate auf. Eine brigata setzte sich aus etwa fünf Mitgliedern genannt Zelle, italienisch cellula zusammen, die, teils legal, teils illegal, in den einzelnen Fabriken oder Arbeitervierteln aktiv waren.
Colonne existierten ab in Mailand , ab in Turin und ab dann auch in Genua , Florenz , Venedig und vor allem Rom.
Diese Expansion des Jahres machte zugleich eine Neuausrichtung und Zentralisierung der strategischen Leitung notwendig. Als oberste Entscheidungsinstanz innerhalb der Gruppe wurde deshalb eine Strategische Direktion italienisch direzione strategica gebildet.
Der direzione strategica wurde ein Exekutivkomitee untergeordnet italienisch Comitato esecutivo , das die Aktivitäten der colonne und der neu gebildeten Fronten italienisch fronti koordinieren sollte.
Diese fronti dienten vornehmlich der politischen Debatte. Es wurden insgesamt vier fronti gebildet:. Mit den fronti sollte neben der streng hierarchisierten, vertikalen Struktur brigata - colonna - esecutivo eine horizontale Struktur geschaffen werden.
In der Praxis jedoch konnte keine dieser fronti tatsächlich etabliert werden. Stattdessen setzte sich in der zweiten Hälfte der er Jahre die Tendenz der Zentralisierung und Hierarchisierung weiter fort.
Italien erlebte in der zweiten Hälfte der siebziger Jahre eine Welle der Gewalt. Für den Gesamtzeitraum von bis summieren sich die linksterroristischen Aktionen auf 1.
In diesem Zeitraum forderte der Linksterrorismus 97 Todesopfer, davon 81 allein in den Jahren — Auf ihr Konto gingen Aktionen in den sechs Jahren ihres Bestehens darunter 11 gezielte Mordanschläge.
Die BR, so die Kritik, hätten nicht nur die operaistische Linie verlassen, sondern seien auch zu isoliert und hätten den Kontakt zu den Arbeitern verloren.
Die Proteste von settantasette waren zum Teil betont gewalttätig. In ebendiesem Kontext der diffusen und stets gegenwärtigen Gewalt entwickelte sich auch die neue Radikalität der BR.
Bereits in den ersten drei Monaten des Jahres brachten die BR zwei gezielte Mordanschläge zur Ausführung, drei Personen wurden gezielt verletzt.
März in Rom. Dessen fünf Begleiter wurden erschossen. Die Situation lässt sich durchaus mit der des Deutschen Herbstes vergleichen. Auch die italienische Regierung verlegte sich auf eine Politik der Härte und lehnte jede Verhandlung mit den Entführern ab.
Moro verfasste in diesen Wochen über 80 Briefe an seine Familie und auch an einige Parteifreunde, die er wegen ihrer kompromisslosen Linie allerdings scharf kritisierte.
Einzig der Sozialist Bettino Craxi setzte sich dafür ein, Verhandlungen mit den Entführern aufzunehmen. Doch blieben alle Vermittlungsversuche ohne Ergebnis; weder Craxi noch Moros Briefe konnten den Krisenstab von seiner harten Haltung abbringen.
Die Leiche wurde im Kofferraum eines roten Renault 4 aufgefunden. Die Hintergründe und Motive der Tat sind bis heute umstritten; insbesondere gibt es Spekulationen über die Involvierung von Geheimdiensten und ausländischen Regierungen siehe ausführlich den Personenartikel zur zeithistorischen Aufarbeitung.
Obwohl es nicht gelang, durch die Entführung politische Nahziele zu erreichen, verbuchten die BR diese Frühjahrskampagne als Erfolg. In der terroristischen Praxis schlug sich dies darin nieder, dass nun immer öfter und vor allem wahlloser von der Schusswaffe Gebrauch gemacht wurde.
Die Jahre — waren die opferreichsten in der Geschichte des italienischen Linksterrorismus. Diese neue Radikalität beschleunigte den Prozess der Entsolidarisierung innerhalb der Linken und auch die erstrebte proletarische Einheit blieb unerreicht.
Stattdessen führten die Antiterrorgesetze, und hier vor allem die legge Cossiga s. Diese Verhaftungswelle bedeutete das Aus für die meisten bewaffneten Gruppen.
Viele der Verhafteten entschieden sich, die neu geschaffene Kronzeugenregelung in Anspruch zu nehmen und mit der Polizei zusammenzuarbeiten.
Der bedeutendste Kronzeuge war Patrizio Peci. Juni , den sie dann am 3. August vor laufender Kamera erschossen. Roberto Peci war seit selbst BR-Mitglied gewesen und hatte ebenfalls mit der Polizei zusammengearbeitet.
Unterstützend wurde im Spezialgefängnis von Trani zudem ein Gefangenenaufstand organisiert, der jedoch niedergeschlagen wurde. Als Vergeltung erschossen die BR am Dezember den Carabinieri-General Enrico Dalvaligi.
Januar freigelassen. Moretti hatte kraft seiner persönlichen Autorität die BR zusammengehalten, was nun immer weniger gelang.
Angesichts des Fahndungsdrucks und der ausbleibenden Erfolge vertieften sich die Gräben zwischen den Faktionen innerhalb der BR. Im Dezember spalteten sich die BR dann auch auf nationaler Ebene.
Ein Teil organisierte sich im Partito della Guerriglia. Die Guerillapartei glaubte an einen unmittelbar bevorstehenden Bürgerkrieg, daher folgten sie der Strategie einer offenen Konfrontation, in der sie bis elf Menschen umbrachte.
In diesem Rahmen führten sie am Dozier wurde am Januar durch ein Spezialkommando der Polizei befreit. Zwar folgten bis weitere Anschläge, doch nahm die Anschlagsdichte deutlich ab.
Einige Militante setzten den bewaffneten Kampf fort und töteten am April den christdemokratischen Senator Roberto Ruffilli. Es war der letzte Mord der BR.
Anfang wurden 15 Personen festgenommen. Kategorien : Italienische Geschichte Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Veraltete Normdaten.
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